Showing posts with label networking. Show all posts
Showing posts with label networking. Show all posts

Basics of Sub-netting

Posted by Tushar Bedekar

What is Subnetting?


Image result for ipv6 subnettingSubnetting allows you to create multiple logical networks that exist within a single Class A, B, or C network.
To subnet a network is to create logical divisions of the network. Subnetting, therefore, involves dividing the network into smaller portions called subnets. Subnetting applies to IP addresses because this is done by borrowing bits from the host portion of the IP address. In a sense, the IP address then has three components - the network part, the subnet part and, finally, the host part.
For Example:
11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000 will be equal to 255.255.255.240 in decimal.
Where, 11111111 = 255
And, 11110000 = 240
In 11111111 the total bits in network field are 8. So, 2^8=255   and,
                         
For 11110000, Notice that the fourth byte in the network mask has four bits set to ‘1’. If you look at the chart below, its value is 240 (128+64+32+16).
There are so many reasons why we subnet:
a. It helps in the preservation of address space in other not to waste addresses.
b. It used for security.

c. It helps to control network traffic due to collisions of packets transmitted by other node (host) on the same segment.

Subnetting a Network Address.

In order to subnet a network address, The  subnet mask has to be extended, using some of the bits from the host ID portion of the address to create a sub network ID.

How to Subnet:

This mean, borrow some bits from the host part to add to the network part. This allows us to have more networks than using the default subnet mask. For example, we can borrow some bits in the next octet to make the address belong to a different network.
For example:
Now you can clearly see that the subnet mask will decide which is the network part, which is the Host part. By borrowing 8 bits, our subnet mask will be like this:
After changing the second octet of the subnet mask from all “0″ to all “1″, the Network part is now extended. Now we can create new networks by changing number in the first or second octet. This greatly increases the number of networks we can create.
So, in conclusion we “subnet” by borrowing bit “0″ in the Host portion and converting them to bit “1″. The number of borrowed bits is depended on how many networks we need.
For Example:
Calculating Host: 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000 will be equal 14 hosts
Notice the last four bits of the network mass has set to 0,
Formula = 2^4=16, and out of 16 we have only 14 valid hosts.
16-2=14 hosts, we have subtracted 2 because it is used for broadcast and network ID in the network.
Below is a quick reminder of the two major rules governing the number of subnet valid host addresses available given the particular network mas length.
1. Number of Available Subnet Cheat Sheet
Where “S” = Number of Subnet bits
2. Number of Available Valid Host Addresses Cheat Sheet
Where “h” = Number of host bits
3. Binary/Decimal/Subnet Cheat Sheet.


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How To Increase Internet Speed without the use of any software

Posted by Tushar Bedekar

Many times we find that our internet speed is slow and we get tired to use it for a long time. Now here is the solution. Actually.Actually what our PC or Our Laptop reserves some amount of the internet bandwidth(nearly 20% default). And now if we make this reserved band width to a zero than the internet speed can be increased by the certain amount.So in order to increase your internet speed just follow the steps given below:-

Steps:-


  • First of all open run just by pressing the keyboard shortcut(windows key +R)
  • Then enter the command given below:-                                              gpedit.msc
  • Now a windows opens having the name (local group policy editor)
  • In the left most corner it has been written (administrative temp lets)
  • Inside that administrative temp-lets click on the network.
  • Now in the right hand side window you will find QoS packet scheduler.
  • Now double click on that.
  • After Double clicking it you will find the option limit reversible bandwidth.
  • Again Double click on that.
  • you will find the option bandwidth limit (%) in which 20 or any other value is being written.
  • Make it zero and than click apply.
  • Now you have done.
  • Then restart your Browser you will find some speed has been increased.  

Screen Shots:-


http://www.allaboutcomputing.net/
 http://www.allaboutcomputing.net/

http://www.allaboutcomputing.net/
http://www.allaboutcomputing.net/

Warning:-

  • We are not responsible for any damages that may happened by using this Techniques. 
  • Use this guide at your own risk. We shall not have any liability or responsibility for whatever happens to you and your device by using the instructions in this guide.
  • The instructions provided in this tutorial for educational purpose only. There is no guarantee that these steps will work for your device.
  •  Applying this guide to any other device or any other model may produce many problems.
  • Read and Understand the whole tutorial first, before going to perform the steps.
  • At the same time this content is not to harm any one but it is only for educational purpose.


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Search Engine Optimization In Mobile Phone

Posted by Tushar
In the Present Era Due To the advancement in the technology such smart-phones many of the user make use of internet and are access the internet from their mobile phones and smart phones.so it become necessary for all the webdesigners to improve their Webpage design compatibile for all the mobile phones also i.e webpages must look good when they are being opened in the mobile phones.

Mobile sites not only use a different format from normal desktop sites, but the management methods and expertise required are also quite different. 
Verify that your mobile site is indexed by Search Engine
Search Engine Such As Google And Bing crawl your site before it can be included in our search index. If you just created the site, we may not yet be aware of it. If that's the case, create a Mobile Sitemap and submit it to Search Engine Such as Google And Bing to inform us of the site’s existence. A Mobile Sitemap can be submitted using Webmaster Tools, just like a standard Sitemap.
The crawler for mobile sites Would not Crawel. If you'd like your site crawled, please allow any User-agent to access your site.

Running desktop and mobile versions of your site
Redirect mobile users to the correct version. One of the most common problems for webmasters who run both mobile and desktop versions of a site is that the mobile version of the site appears for users on a desktop computer, or that the desktop version of the site appears when someone accesses it on a mobile device.
For the Solution of the above problem follow as listed below


(1) Redirect mobile users to the correct version
Google notices the relationship between the two versions of the URL and displays the standard version for searches from desktops and the mobile version for mobile searches.
(2) Switch content based on User-agent
Some sites have the same URL for both desktop and mobile content, but change their format according to User-agent. In other words, both mobile users and desktop users access the same URL (i.e. no redirects), but the content/format changes slightly according to the User-agent. In this case, the same URL will appear for both mobile search and desktop search, and desktop users can see a desktop version of the content while mobile users can see a mobile version of the content
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How to Show any Widget Only on Homepage in webpage

Posted by Tushar Bedekar
 
To show Widget only on homepage, add a conditional tag for with the widget you have used . Go to Template >> Edit HTML >> Search for the widget and add red coloured conditional tag below.
Normally, you can find the widget in "Mainblog/ Mainwrapper" if you put the Widget over blog post. I suggest you use a widget title and search the title in HTML editor. Thus you can easily find the widget. Now add the red coloured tag as shown in the code.


Example :
<b:widget id='HTML5' locked='false' title='Testing Widget' type='HTML'>
<b:includable id='main'>
<b:if cond='data:blog.url == data:blog.homepageUrl'>
<!-- only display title if it's non-empty -->
<b:if cond='data:title != &quot;&quot;'>
<h2 class='title'><data:title/></h2>
</b:if>
<div class='widget-content'>
<data:content/>
</div>
</b:if>
<b:include name='quickedit'/>

</b:includable>
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Latest Updates Widget for Blogger

Posted by Tushar Bedekar
 It is one of the most attractive widget for blogger , is provide a quick navigation system for your visitors . it look like as :





Procedure:
1.      Go to Template > Edit HTML

2.  Now past the billow code in CSS
                           Or    
       Search  “  ]]></b:skin>  “ and past the billow code just above it
Code:
.samazhlo {
background: #4371CF;
position:absolute;
float: left;
padding: 0 10px;
height: 32px;
line-height: 30px;
color: #FFF;
font-family: Oswald,arial,Georgia,serif;
text-transform: uppercase;
font-size: 10pt;
margin-right: 10px;}

.head_brnews{
height:30px;background:#fff;width:100%;max-width:1250px;margin:0 ;border-style: solid ;
border-width: 1px;border-color: #cccccc;overflow: hidden;width: auto;margin-top:10px;}
.breaking-news{
float:left;
height:30px;
position:relative;
overflow:hidden;
margin-bottom:20px;
}
.breaking-news h4{
background: #9EC22D;
display:block;
float:left;
padding:0 10px;
height:32px;
line-height:30px;
color:#FFF;
font-family: Oswald,arial,Georgia,serif;
text-transform:uppercase;
font-size:10pt;
margin-right:10px
}
.breaking-news ul{
float:left
}
.breaking-news a:hover{
color:#333;
}
.breaking-news ul li{
float:left;
display:block;
list-style:none;
}
.breaking-news ul a{
padding:1px;
display:block;
color:#333;
white-space:nowrap;
float:left;
line-height:30px;
font-size:13px;
font-family: 'Droid Serif', serif;
display:hidden;
}
.breaking-news span{
display:block;
float:left;
padding:1px 10px;
color:#333;
font-size:12px;
line-height:30px;
}
3.    Now  past the billow code any where Between  <head>  &  </head>   where u want the widget to be display
       for example past it after the navigation bar code  </div>
code:
<div class='head_brnews'>
<div class='breaking-news'><div class='samazhlo'>Latest Updates</div> 
<script src='https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/80436322/autoscroll.js' type='text/javascript'/>

  <script type='text/javascript'>
       var nMaxPosts =6;
        var nWidth = 100;
        var nScrollDelay = 70;
        var sDirection = &quot;left&quot;;
        var sOpenLinkLocation = &quot;N&quot;;
        var sBulletChar = &quot;&gt;&gt;&quot;;
</script>
<script src='/feeds/posts/default?alt=json-in-script&amp;callback=RecentPostsScrollerv2&amp;max-results=6' type='text/javascript'/>
  </div>
</div>
4.   Now save the template
That’s it……………….
Happy Blogging!

   By- TYD group
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