Showing posts with label ms excel. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ms excel. Show all posts

## Formulas and Functions in ms excel

Posted by Tushar Bedekar
Introduction

The ability to perform calculations is one of the purposes of using a spreadsheet application.
Some examples of the types of calculations that can be done are:
ˆ totals
ˆ subtotals
ˆ average
ˆ standard deviation
In Excel,the calculation can be specified using either a formula or a function.
ˆ Formulas are self-defined instructions for performing calculations.
ˆ In contrast, functions are pre-defined formulas that come with Excel.
In either case, all formulas and functions are entered in a cell and must begin with an equal sign ’=’.

Entering Formulas

After the equal sign, a formula includes the addresses of the cells whose values will be manipulated with
appropriate operands placed in between. The operands are the standard arithmetic operators:
! Practice Exercise: Enter the following information into a blank worksheet (ignore any formatting) in
columns A, B, and C, and in rows 1 through 6. Then calculate the Total Cost for the the Fall semester using
a formula to add up the individual Costs (Tuition, Housing, etc.).

ˆ The most logical solution would be to type the formula ’=B2+B3+B4+B5’ into cell B6.
You can also enter formulas by using the point mode, where you either click on a cell with your left mouse
button or you use the arrow keys.
ˆ To enter ’=B2+B3+B4+B5’ into cell B6 using the point:
– Left click on cell B6 to make it active.
– Type ’=’.
– Use the up arrow key to move to cell B5, or left click on cell B5.
– Type ’+’.
– Use the up arrow or mouse to add cells B4, B3, and B2 in the same fashion.
– Press Enter when you are finished entering the formula.
You’ll notice that the calculation executes immediately after the formula is typed into the cell and entered
by pressing either the Enter or Tab key or by clicking the check mark in the formula bar.
ˆ The result of the calculation is displayed in the cell (i.e., in B6).
ˆ The formula itself is now visible in the formula bar.
What happens if you enter ’B2+B3+B4+B5’ without the leading equal sign ’=’ into cell B6?
ˆ
REMEMBER: All formulas and functions must begin with a ’=’.
ˆ The text of the formula or function will be displayed in the cell if you do not use an ’=’ and the
calculation will not be executed.
IMPORTANT: Why use cell references (i.e., cell addresses; e.g., B2 or C5) in formulas instead of the actual values of the cells (e.g., 10000 or 700)? The answer: automatic calculation. Let’s illustrate the concept of automatic calculation with a practice exercise:
! Practice Exercise: Let’s make a change to the Costs for the Fall and Spring semester spreadsheet and note how Excel automatically recalculates the formulas and functions we have already entered.
ˆ Change the amount entered in cell C2 from ’10000’ to ’15000’.
ˆ Notice how all the calculations referencing cell C2 automatically changed.

To reiterate the use of cell addresses in formulas and functions, imagine we had constructed our formulas and functions by typing the actual numbers contained in the cells instead of the cell addresses. That is, to calculate the Total Cost for the Fall semester we had entered the formula ’=10000+5000+1000+1500’.
What would happen if we changed the amount entered in cell C2 from ’10000’ to ’15000’ as suggested above?
Obviously, our calculation defined by our formula would not automatically change, and we would have to edit the formula by hand. Imagine if the cell we modified was referenced by ten separate formulas or functions.
That would be a lot of editing.
In summary, automatic calculation is activated, Excel automatically recalculates the result of any formulas as cell entries change. Automatic calculation also applies to functions, which we’ll be covering in the next section.

Side note: You can check to make sure automatic calculation is turned on:

• ˆ Select Tools from the Options drop menu.

• ˆ Click on the Calculation tab.
• ˆ Select Automatic if it is not already selected.
• ˆ Click OK.

Entering Functions

Functions differ from regular formulas in that, after the equal sign, you supply the cell addresses but not
the arithmetic operators. Functions perform calculations by using specific values, called arguments, in a particular order called syntax. When using a function, remember the following:
ˆ Use an equal sign to begin the function.
ˆ Specify the function name.
ˆ Enclose all of the function’s arguments within parentheses.
ˆ Use a comma to separate the function’s individual arguments.
! Practice Exercise: In the Costs for the Fall and Spring semester spreadsheet, calculate the Average Cost
of Tuition for the Fall and Spring semesters using the AVERAGE function.
ˆ The most logical solution would be to type ’=AVERAGE(B2, C2)’ into cell D2.
– The equal sign begins the function.
– AVERAGE is the name of the function.
– B2, and C2 are the arguments.
– Parentheses enclose all of the arguments.
– Commas separate each of the arguments.

•  Reference Operators

Reference operators refer to a cell or a group of cells. There are two main types of reference operators:
1. Range:
ˆ Refers to all of the cells between and including the reference.
ˆ Consists of two cell addresses separated by a colon.
ˆ EXAMPLE: ’A1:A3’ includes cells A1, A2, and A3.
ˆ EXAMPLE: ’A1:C3’ includes cells A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, and C3.
2. Union:
ˆ Includes two or more references.
ˆ Consists of two or more cell addresses separated by a comma.
ˆ EXAMPLE: ’A7, B8, C9’ refers to cells A7, B8, and C9.
ˆ EXAMPLE: ’A7, B8:D9, E4’ refers to cells A7, B8, B9, C8, C9, D8, D9 and E4.
In the function practice exercise, we used a union reference when we typed ’=AVERAGE(B2, C2)’ in cell
D2, but we could have used a range reference instead: ’=AVERAGE(B2:C2)’.

•  Autosum

You can use the Autosum icon on the standard toolbar, which automatically adds the contents of a cluster
ˆ Select the cell that the sum will appear in that is outside the cluster of cells whose values will be added.
ˆ Click the Autosum button (Greek letter sigma, ).
ˆ Highlight the group of cells that will be summed.
ˆ Press the Enter key on the keyboard or click the green check mark on the formula bar.
! Practice Exercise: In the Costs for the Fall and Spring semester spreadsheet, calculate the Total Cost
for the the Spring semester using the Autosum icon.
ˆ Click on cell C6 to activate it.
ˆ Click the Autosum button.
ˆ Highlight cells C2 through C5.
ˆ Press Enter.

•  Function Wizard

You can access all of the available functions in Excel using the Function Wizard.
ˆ Select the cell where the function will be placed and click the Function Wizard button on the standard
toolbar.
ˆ Other ways of starting the Function Wizard are:
– Select Function from the Insert drop menu.
– Click on the drop down arrow next to the Autosum icon button.
* You will first see the commonly used functions in Excel, and at the bottom of the menu, the
More Functions option.
* Clicking on More Functions will give you an alphabetical and categorical listing of all available
functions in Excel.
From the Paste Function dialog box, browse through the functions by clicking in the Function category
menu on the left and select from the Function name choices on the right.
ˆ As each function name is highlighted a description and example of use is provided below the two boxes.
Clicking OK to select the function, opens the Function Arguments dialog box, which allows you to choose the
cells that will be included in the function.
ˆ As in the last previous function, we can type the cell addresses in the necessary argument boxes.
ˆ We can also enter the cells using the point mode (i.e., the left mouse button).
– Click and drag across a group of cells to enter a range of cells addresses.
– Use the Ctrl key and mouse to enter a union of cells addresses.
ˆ Excel may automatically select cells for you, but you can delete those selected cells from the argument
box and enter the desired cell addresses.

Click OK when all the cells for the function have been entered into the necessary argument boxes.
! Practice Exercise: In the Costs for the Fall and Spring semester spreadsheet, calculate the average Housing
cost for the Fall and Spring semesters using the Function Wizard and the AVERAGE function.
ˆ Click on cell D3 to activate it.
ˆ Activate the Function Wizard.
ˆ Choose the AVERAGE function from the ’Most Recently Used’ Function category.
ˆ Using the mouse, highlight cells B3 and C3, or type ’B3:C3’ in the Number1 argument box.
ˆ Click OK to execute the calculation.
All other functions can be entered and executed in a similar fashion.

A Function instead of a Formula

Functions can be a more efficient way of performing mathematical operations than formulas. Specifically, in
many cases, a function will simplify formulas that you can type in manually, such as average or sum.
ˆ EXAMPLE: If you wanted to add the values of cells D1 through D10, you could type the formula
’=D1+D2+D3+D4+D5+D6+D7+D8+D9+D10’, or a shorter way would be to use the SUM function
and simply type ’=SUM(D1:D10)’.
The following table contains the definitions and examples of several other available functions:
Function Example Description
SUM =SUM(A1:A100) Finds the sum of cells A1 through A100.
AVERAGE =AVERAGE(B1:B10) Finds the average of the cells B1 through B10.
MAX =MAX(C1:C100) Returns the highest number from cells C1 through C100.
MIN =MIN(D1:D100) Returns the lowest number from cells D1 through D100.
SQRT =SQRT(D10) Finds the square root of the value in D10.
TODAY =TODAY() Returns the current date (leave the parentheses empty).

## How To Make Symbols With Keyboard In MS Excel

Posted by Tushar Bedekar

Alt + 0153..... ™... trademark symbol
Alt + 0174..... ®....registered ­ trademark symbol
Alt + 0176 ...°......degre ­e symbol
Alt + 0177 ...±....plus-or ­-minus sign
Alt + 2 ......☻.....bla­ck smiley face
Alt + 15.....☼.....su­n
Alt + 12......♀.....female sign
Alt + 11.....♂......m­ale sign
Alt + 5.......♣...... ­Club
Alt + 3.............. ­Heart
Alt + 4.......♦...... ­Diamond
Alt + 13......♪.....e­ighth note
Alt + 14......♫...... ­beamed eighth note
Alt + 8721.... ∑.... N-ary summation (auto sum)
Alt + 251.....√.....s­quare root check mark
Alt + 8236.....∞..... ­infinity
Alt + 24.......↑..... ­up arrow
Alt + 25......↓...... ­down arrow
Alt + 26.....→.....ri­ght arrow
Alt + 27......←.....l­eft arrow
Alt + 18.....↕......u­p/down arrow
Alt + 29......↔...left right arrow 