## How We Can Have a Nested Return In a Function

Posted by Tushar Bedekar
Let us First Understand what is required and what the question is all about.Actually we are discussing about nested return in the function. that is return within the return  so follow is the programme which is conveying the same.Her we have taken the two function name "Factorial" and "Sum" which are calculating the factorial of a number and the result of the factorial  is returned to the function name sum which is calculating the sum of any number

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int factorial();
int sum();

int main(int a)
{
int c;
printf("\"enter the a number\"");
scanf("%d",&a);

c=sum(a);
printf("The required result is %d \n",c);
getchar();
return 0;
}

int factorial(int y)
{
int i,fact=1;
for(i=1;i<=y;i++)
fact=fact*i;
printf("The factorial of a number is %d \n",fact);
return fact;
}

int sum( int x)
{
int result,k;
printf("enter the number whose factorial is required \n");
scanf("%d",&k);
result=x+factorial(k);
return result;
}

## Difference Between Procedure Oriented Programming (POP) & Object Oriented Programming (OOP)

Posted by Tushar Bedekar

Procedure Oriented ProgrammingObject Oriented Programming
Divided IntoIn POP, program is divided into small parts called functions.In OOP, program is divided into parts called objects.
ImportanceIn POP,Importance is not given to data but to functions as well as sequence of actions to be done.In OOP, Importance is given to the data rather than procedures or functions because it works as a real world.
ApproachPOP follows Top Down approach.OOP follows Bottom Up approach.
Access SpecifiersPOP does not have any access specifier.OOP has access specifiers named Public, Private, Protected, etc.
Data MovingIn POP, Data can move freely from function to function in the system.In OOP, objects can move and communicate with each other through member functions.
ExpansionTo add new data and function in POP is not so easy.OOP provides an easy way to add new data and function.
Data AccessIn POP, Most function uses Global data for sharing that can be accessed freely from function to function in the system.In OOP, data can not move easily from function to function,it can be kept public or private so we can control the access of data.
Data HidingPOP does not have any proper way for hiding data so it is less secure.OOP provides Data Hiding so provides more security.
ExamplesExample of POP are : C, VB, FORTRAN, Pascal.Example of OOP are : C++, JAVA, VB.NET, C#.NET.

## Samsung Galaxy J3 vs Samsung Galaxy J5: budget phablets from Korea

Posted by Tushar Bedekar
Samsung had released a handful of budget Android smartphones in India, especially under the Galaxy J range. In July last year, the brand launched the Galaxy J5 and Galaxy J7 as its first smartphones to boast LED flash units at front to deliver better selfies under low light-conditions. After the selfie-focused Galaxy J5 and J7, the company in September launched a budget 4G-enabled device in the J series called the Galaxy J2 in the country. The vendor recently unveiled the Samsung Galaxy J3 in China, and is expected to bring it to India very soon.
The Galaxy J5 and Galaxy J3 are both among the best contenders of the budget devices from the company. They share quite a few specifications including the price range. If you are planning to buy any one of these phones, let’s put their specs on the table to find out how they stand against each other.

## Samsung Galaxy J3 vs Samsung Galaxy J5: comparison of budget 4G phablets

### Design

Talking about the design first, the Samsung Galaxy J3 sports a metallic frame, measures 7.9mm around the waist, and tips the scale at 138 grams. The Samsung Galaxy J5 on the other hand sports a plastic design with chrome finish edges. The phone features a waistline of 8.5mm and weighs slightly higher than the Galaxy J3 at 149 grams. Overall, with the Chrome finish edges, the Galaxy J5 looks much more appealing than the J3.

### Display and OS

The Samsung Galaxy J3 and Galaxy J5, both the smartphones offer 5-inch Super AMOLED 1,280 x 720p resolution displays with pixel density of 294ppi. So when it comes to the media viewing, both the smartphones offer similar experience. On the software-front, the Galaxy J3 and Galaxy J5, both were released running Android 5.1 Lollipop out of the box with the TouchWiz UI on top. There’s no word if they will be getting the Android Marshmallow update anytime soon.

### Configuration

The Samsung Galaxy J3 and Galaxy J5, both are powered by 1.2GHz quad-core processors. Their performance is further enhanced by 1.5-gigabytes of RAM. They deliver smooth lag-free user experience and decent gaming experience. Storage capacity on both is also the same 8-gigabytes, which users can further increase up to 128GB by adding a microSD card.

### Camera

Coming to the camera, the Samsung Galaxy J3 gets an 8-megapixel primary snapper, aided by an LED flash and full HD video recording. The Galaxy J5 on the other hand sports a much better 13-megapixel primary camera with an LED flash, autofocus and 1080p recording. For selfies and video calling, the Galaxy J3 and Galaxy J5 offer 5-megapixel secondary shooters. However, the Galaxy J5 has an LED flash unit for the front camera, which offers better quality selfies than the Galaxy J3.

### Connectivity and battery

In terms of connectivity, the Galaxy J3 and Galaxy J5, both offer support for Indian 4G LTE networks, dual-SIM slots, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, micro-USB 2.0 and A-GPS. The Galaxy J5 also gets an addition USB on the go connectivity option. When it comes to the battery, the Galaxy J3 and Galaxy J5, both smartphones are fueled by 2,600mAh units.

### Conclusion

The Samsung Galaxy J3 and Galaxy J5 are not really that different. They offer the same screen sizes, display resolution, software features, configuration, storage capacity, connectivity options, and the same connectivity options. However, the Galaxy J5 sports a more appealing design than the Galaxy J3, and comes with excellent camera specifications with LED flash for the front camera. The Samsung Galaxy J5 has been priced at Rs 11,999, while the Galaxy J3 is expected to be priced in India around Rs 9,000. The Galaxy J5 costs slightly higher than the Galaxy J3, but delivers better selfie experience for these extra thousand bucks.

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## Introducing Windows 10

Posted by Tushar Bedekar

# No more endless searching. The Photos app collects all your photos and videos in one place. From your phone, and your PC, and OneDrive. Then, it organizes your memories into albums for you to enjoy and share. Also you can edit the photos at the same place and upload it again.

• Note:- The reference has been take from Microsoft windows 10 Site.
• Also some Images has also been taken from internet.

## Class In Object oriented Programming languages

Posted by Tushar Bedekar
Basically, there  are various different definition of the classes in object-oriented programming language. Some basic definition are as follows:-

• The class is said to be the collection of an object.
• The class is said to be the collection of the data members and their member functions that are used to access and modify those data members.
• The class is sometimes said to be the blueprint of an object.
```     class Box
{
public:
double length;   // Length of a box
double height;   // Height of a box
};```
The C++ makes use of the keyword class followed by its identifier(Name of the class). Basically the class is said to be the collection of similar kind of an object.

The C++ classes have 3 different types of access specifier. They are as follows:
• Public
• Private
• And protected.

### Keywords: private and public

Keyword private makes data and functions private and keyword public makes data and functions public. Private data and functions are accessible inside that class only whereas, public data and functions are accessible both inside and outside the class. This feature in OOP is known as data hiding. If programmer mistakenly tries to access private data outside the class, compiler shows an error which prevents the misuse of data. Generally, data are private and functions are public.

### Keyword: Protected

But however the C++ makes use of another special kind of keyword (access specifier) Protected which is used to hide the data members and members function from being accessed from other class but allows the access from only the child class.

### Data Members:

data member may be of any type, including classes already defined, pointers to objects of any type, or even references to objects of any type.Data members may be private or public, but are usually held private so that values may only be changed at the discretion of the class function members.

### Member Function:

Member functions are operators and functions that are declared as members of a class. Member functions do not include operators and functions declared with the friend specifier. These are called friends of a class. You can declare a member function as static; this is called a static member function.

Further Topics will be covered in the next post.If you have any doubt regarding this section fell free to contact us     you can also join us at  Discussion Forum or E-mail us at

## What is Cloud Computing

Posted by Tushar Bedekar

### Cloud Computing: Meaning and Implications.

Cloud computing represents a new revolutionary organizing principle for computing. It is new because of its scale and revolutionary because of its consequences. For instance, it liberates individual and institutions from owning a computing device or infrastructure but still make them capable of accessing computing resources. Today an developer can avail and access and meet computational needs from outside by way of cloud computing services and  without building or buying her own computing infrastructure.

Cloud computing builds resources in large and supply in retail. For example, a user in cyber center is availing a service such as email- Gmail or Hotmail. Cloud computing separates developing computing from its consumption. In doing so it has created an entire spectrum of industries -
• Infrastructure as a service-  business of building and supplying basic computational resources such as computing, storage -

• Platform as a service-  business of providing computing resources and environment for building and operating services

• Software- as a service - business of developing and offering software

### Cloud Computing: Physical Meaning

Cloud computing is new service paradigm. It refers to the provision of computational resources on demand via a network.In its practical and most widely known form this network is the Internet. However cloud can be developed and deployed on network which not necessarily the Internet. When done that way, cloud may resemble a kind of VPN.. The central idea behind cloud computing model is derived and can be can be compared to the supply of electricity and gas, or the provision of telephone, television and postal services. All of these services are presented to the users in a simple way that is easy to understand without the users needing to know how the services are provided. In other words,  benefits are for users and burden is for the provider.  The details workings of a system behind a service always remains a mystery for the end user.

Example: A letter posted in Bangalore will reach its destination say in Gujarat using postal network consisting of many points where it gets bagged( putting into a bag meant for a destination) and debugged ( when a letter is removed from a bag when it has to reach a different destination).

However, postal service seeker is not concerned with these detail. Her only one objective is to send/receive a letter. The behind the scene mechanism always remains mystery but she is given a simple interface A post office to send her letter. This simplified view is called an abstraction. Similarly, cloud computing offers computer application developers and users an abstract view of services that simplifies and ignores much of the details and inner workings. A provider's offering of abstracted Internet services is often called as Cloud.

### Cloud Computing In a Nutshell:-

Cloud computing is a multi-perspective and multi-dimensional phenomenon.  The answer to the question “What is cloud computing “is depends on who is answering that question. However, the most widely known perspective on cloud computing projects it as a service delivery model that uses the Internet as the common interface to reach its beneficiary. The beneficiary of cloud computing service could be a citizen, consumer or a learner depending on whether it is used by a government, business or university. When applied to business, cloud computing assumes a sharper form and becomes service composition, delivery and consumption model.

The categories of services that a business can deliver using cloud computing is currently limited to three (although some are on the horizon) and is known as “service models”. The different purposes for which an enterprise can build a cloud computing infrastructure and ways in which it can  determine its scope and access is described in cloud “deployment models” and at,present there are four ways in which this can be done. The cloud computing phenomenon because of its huge scope and deep potential to participate in virtually all human affairs – banking to education to health and others is tackling all important and perpetually concerned issues such as cloud security and trans-border business aspects. In sum cloud computing is a living and affecting lives of many.

## How to get best Android phone for today: 5 models

Posted by Tushar Bedekar
These days everyone seems to want the latest smart phone to come out, but who can blame them when you look at how rapidly these devices are improving. Technology truly has ramped up the speed at which we consume new products, although that simply means that consumers have more access to better quality materials. Although Apple continues to dominate the smart phone market, there is no question that Android is highly popular and a good percentage of the population would not even consider purchasing a new phone. If you want to get your hands on the latest Android phone's, a good place to start is by doing some research on the internet and checking out the various models that they currently have available.
Although you might want to go into the store to make your actual purchase, more and more people are preferring to pick up their new smart phones over the internet. This is due in large part to the fact that you can generally get much better deals over the internet, because the online retailers have to compete with all sorts of sites, where as if you were to walk into a store, they do not have much competition. For this reason alone, you should see if you can find a better price online, although it is a good idea to head to the stores to actually get the phones you are looking at in your hand, so you get a feel of whether you like them or not. However, if you are a die hard Android fan, this may not pertain to you, as you likely are going to purchase their products anyway.

If you are looking into getting a brand new Android phone, you may want to consider some of these models. The Samsung Galaxy Note 5 has gotten great reviews online and is far superior than the previous models that Samsung has put out in the past, which were lacking in a great deal of areas. They Galaxy Note 5 features a top of the line display screen, which has gotten the phone a lot of attention. The overall features in the phone, in regards to multitasking, taking pictures and videos, and maintaining a long battery life, are drastically better than previous Samsung models.

The LG G4 is one of the highest rated Androids on the market right now and they have been called a great all around smart phone. The display screen is crisp and the camera takes high-quality shots consistently and there is no question that the software is drastically improving as well. Samsung has another great Android model out, which is the Galaxy S6. This phone has had some reviews that are calling it hands down the best phone on the market, including the iPhone, which got a ton of people's attention. There is no doubt that this is a high quality phone worth considering and at about three hundred dollars less than the Galaxy Note 5, it may be an overall better purchase.
If you are looking for a bit of a cheaper phone that still has a ton of the same capabilities and looks great, you might want to check out the Moto X. Although this phone is less popular and has gotten lower reviews, the camera is of the utmost quality, the software on the phone is great and it holds a long battery life. The Sony Xperia Z5 Premium is another great phone that will also likely get you a lot of looks. This is due to the fact that they sell a bright gold smart phone, which looks amazing and is on par function wise as the top Androids on the market.

## Basics of Sub-netting

Posted by Tushar Bedekar

### What is Subnetting?

Subnetting allows you to create multiple logical networks that exist within a single Class A, B, or C network.
To subnet a network is to create logical divisions of the network. Subnetting, therefore, involves dividing the network into smaller portions called subnets. Subnetting applies to IP addresses because this is done by borrowing bits from the host portion of the IP address. In a sense, the IP address then has three components - the network part, the subnet part and, finally, the host part.
For Example:
11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000 will be equal to 255.255.255.240 in decimal.
Where, 11111111 = 255
And, 11110000 = 240
In 11111111 the total bits in network field are 8. So, 2^8=255   and,

For 11110000, Notice that the fourth byte in the network mask has four bits set to ‘1’. If you look at the chart below, its value is 240 (128+64+32+16).
There are so many reasons why we subnet:
a. It helps in the preservation of address space in other not to waste addresses.
b. It used for security.

c. It helps to control network traffic due to collisions of packets transmitted by other node (host) on the same segment.

In order to subnet a network address, The  subnet mask has to be extended, using some of the bits from the host ID portion of the address to create a sub network ID.

### How to Subnet:

This mean, borrow some bits from the host part to add to the network part. This allows us to have more networks than using the default subnet mask. For example, we can borrow some bits in the next octet to make the address belong to a different network.
For example:
Now you can clearly see that the subnet mask will decide which is the network part, which is the Host part. By borrowing 8 bits, our subnet mask will be like this:
After changing the second octet of the subnet mask from all “0″ to all “1″, the Network part is now extended. Now we can create new networks by changing number in the first or second octet. This greatly increases the number of networks we can create.
So, in conclusion we “subnet” by borrowing bit “0″ in the Host portion and converting them to bit “1″. The number of borrowed bits is depended on how many networks we need.
For Example:
Calculating Host: 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000 will be equal 14 hosts
Notice the last four bits of the network mass has set to 0,
Formula = 2^4=16, and out of 16 we have only 14 valid hosts.
16-2=14 hosts, we have subtracted 2 because it is used for broadcast and network ID in the network.
Below is a quick reminder of the two major rules governing the number of subnet valid host addresses available given the particular network mas length.
1. Number of Available Subnet Cheat Sheet
Where “S” = Number of Subnet bits
2. Number of Available Valid Host Addresses Cheat Sheet
Where “h” = Number of host bits
3. Binary/Decimal/Subnet Cheat Sheet.