What is BootStrap

Posted by Tushar Bedekar

Definition - What does Bootstrap mean?

A bootstrap is the process of starting up a computer. It also refers to the program that initializes the operating system (OS) during start-up.

The term bootstrap or bootstrapping originated in the early 1950s. It referred to a bootstrap load button that was used to initiate a hardwired bootstrap program, or smaller program that executed a larger program such as the OS. The term was said to be derived from the expression “pulling yourself up by your own bootstraps;” starting small and loading programs one at a time while each program is “laced” or connected to the next program to be executed in sequence.
Bootstrap is the process of loading a set of instructions when a computer is first turned on or booted. During the start-up process, diagnostic tests are performed, such as the power-on self-test (POST), that set or check configurations for devices and implement routine testing for the connection of peripherals, hardware and external memory devices. The boot loader or bootstrap program is then loaded to initialize the OS.

Typical programs that load the OS are:

  • GNU grand unified boot loader (GRUB): A multiple boot specification that allows the user to choose one of several OSs

  • NT loader (NTLDR): A bootloader for Microsoft’s Windows NT OS that usually runs from the hard drive

  • Linux loader (LILO): A bootloader for Linux that generally runs
    from a hard drive or floppy disc

  • Network interface controller (NIC): Uses a boot loader that supports booting from a network interface such as Ether boot or pre-boot execution environment (PXE)
Prior to bootstrap a computer is said to start with a blank main memory and an intact magnetic core memory or kernel. The bootstrap allows the sequence of programs to load in order to initiate the OS. The OS is the main program that manages all programs that run on a computer and performs tasks such as controlling peripheral devices like a disc drive, managing directories and files, transmitting output signals to a monitor and identifying input signals from a keyboard. 

Bootstrap can also refer to as preparing early programming environments incrementally to create more complex and user-friendly programming environments. For example, at one time the programming environment might have consisted of an assembler program and a simple text editor. Over time, gradual improvements have led to today's sophisticated object-oriented programming languages and graphical integrated development environments (IDEs).

Read More

What is the Diffeence Between Execution & Processing

Posted by Tushar Bedekar

What is Processing:-

In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. It contains the program code and its current activity. Depending on the operating system (OS), a process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions concurrently
A computer program is a passive collection of instructions; a process is the actual execution of those instructions. Several processes may be associated with the same program; for example, opening up several instances of the same program often means more than one process is being executed.
Multitasking is a method to allow multiple processes to share processors (CPUs) and other system resources. Each CPU executes a single task at a time. However, multitasking allows each processor to switch between tasks that are being executed without having to wait for each task to finish. Depending on the operating system implementation, switches could be performed when tasks perform input/output operations, when a task indicates that it can be switched, or on hardware interrupts.
A common form of multitasking is time-sharing. Time-sharing is a method to allow fast response for interactive user applications. In time-sharing systems, context switches are performed rapidly. This makes it seem like multiple processes are being executed simultaneously on the same processor. The execution of multiple processes seemingly simultaneously is called concurrency.
For security and reliability reasons most modern operating systems prevent direct communication between independent processes, providing strictly mediated and controlled inter-process communication functionality.

What is Execution:- 

The dictionary meaning of the execution is carrying out of a plan, order, or course of action 
or in other words it is an act of doing or performing something.


  1. He is in prison awaiting execution.
  2. The quarterback's execution of the play was perfect.
  3. skillful execution of the dance steps
  4. Execution of sequential instruction of the program me.  



Read More

What is Bandwidth ?

Posted by Tushar Bedekar
This is most confusing topic for most of the electronics engineers today.But it is a most important topic because it is one basic topic for the communication engineering.so i find this topic to write first while writing my first topic on electronics engineering.


According to me following are the different definition of the bandwidth:-

  •  The range of the frequencies that can be passed without any attenuation through any communication devices.
  • The portion of electromagnetic spectrum that is being occupied by the signal.
  • Signal is a physical quantity which consist of some information and which is the function of one or more independent variables.
  • Bandwidth as Difference between upper and lower limit of the signal.
  • let F1=50 Hz  & F2=80 Hz Band width =30 Hz (F2-F1)
But as per the above definition`s about the bandwidth it does not give that much of information that we require to understand the topic in detail.

More Info:-

  • The Internet consists of tens of millions of computers throughout the world, all connected by cables. Your ISP (Internet Service Provider) is a company that has a very high-speed (and very expensive) connection to the Internet. Your ISP makes its money by renting little "chunks" of that high-speed connection to consumers who don't want to spend thousands of dollars each month for an Internet connection.
    If you've ever wondered why it takes so long to download certain Web pages or other files to your computer, it's all determined by the bandwidth of the connection between your computer and your Internet Service Provider. Which is to say, it all hinges on that wire connecting your computer to your modem to your ISP. That connection is often referred to as the last mile, as illustrated in Figure 1.
    When you open a Web page or download a file, it travels very quickly from wherever it happens to be on the planet Earth to your ISP. It then travels from the ISP's computers to your computer. The actual speed at which information moves through a wire is always the same, no matter what your bandwidth might be. That is, electrons run through the wires at close to the speed of light, about  670,000,000 MPH (six hundred and seventy million miles per hour). At that speed, you could circle the globe 7 times a second, or 420 times a minute. So why does it take so long for every Web page you visit to appear on your screen? That's where bandwidth comes in.
    Bandwidth is easy to understand if we use an analogy from everyday life. Imagine that instead of trying to get a Web page or file from your ISP through wires, you're trying to drain a swimming pool. The water in the pool is the Web page or file. If you stick a skinny hose to drain the water from the pool, as in Figure 2, it will take quite a while to drain all the water.
    Figure 1
    Now let's say that instead of sticking a skinny pipe onto the pool we put on a big fat pipe, as in Figure 3. I don’t think it takes a physics major to realize that it’s going to take less time to drain the pool in Figure 3 than it is to drain the pool in Figure 2.

    Figure 2
    We can say that the fat drain pipe in Figure 3 is "wider" than the pipe in Figure 2. Or, we could take it another step and say that the fat pipe in Figure 3 has more bandwidth than the skinny pipe. And ultimately, that's what bandwidth is all about. How much stuff can pass through the pipe (or wire) at a time.
    Dial-up Internet accounts, which use a standard telephone line to connect to an ISP, have a very narrow bandwidth (about 50 Kbps or 50,000 bits per second). Thus, things are slow in the sense that it takes a long time to download things.
    broadband Internet account can move data at anywhere from 128 Kbps to 2,000 Kbps or more. That's like the fat drain pipe. It takes a lot less time to get a Web page or file from your ISP's computer to your computer using the broadband account than it does the dial-up account.
    So the whole bandwidth thing (like many things "computerish") boils down to a time vs. money decision. You can either spend the extra amount per month for a faster connection, and spend less time waiting for things to download. Or, you spend less money on a dial-up account, but spend more time waiting for things to appear on your screen.
  • Also Refer:-

Read More

WiFi Cameras:Focus, shoot and share

Posted by Tushar Bedekar
For the socially connected people, who like clicking and sharing their moments, the WiFi enabled camera is a device to have. Being social and being connected is the need of the hour.

WiFi camera has a built in WiFi connectivity and can shoot and share pictures and videos simultaneously.so all you need is the WiFi enabled camera.

Why WiFi camera and not a smart phone? 

A few years ago you had to use a film roll that you had to drop off at a processing lab.which involves a lot of time in processing and sharing the photos with the others. so WiFi enable camera is the best option.  well you might be thinking a  why not to use a smartphone instead of buying a WiFi enabled  camera as you can carry your smart phone with you all the time.
                                 now if you are the serious photographer who does not want to compromise with the quality of the photograph  and also does want to share a single moment to share those photos with the others through the application such as Facebook, flicker, whats app and twitter etc.so WiFi enabled camera is the best choice for those people.

Turn any camera into WiFi camera:- 

WiFi enabled point and shoot cameras  retail at a higher price but if you want to save few bucks, WiFi enable SD card called eye-Fi may be useful to you. These SD card have the WiFi enabled antenna that can transform any camera into a WiFi enable camera  since it is just work around  technology,do not expect the high end features  of WiFi camera coming in. 

Setting your own WiFi camera:- 

once you have a WiFi enabled camera in your possession you just nee t set up its basic features that allow the photographs to be uploaded directly to computer  or a web service. 

Read More

Why To Choose Windows Phone 8.1

Posted by Tushar Bedekar
A Windows Phone(WP) is a mobile operating system developed by Microsoft for smartphones.Windows phone features a new user interface Derived from the Microsoft Developed "Modern" Design Language formally known as Metro.The First Version of Windows Mobile Phone was launched on October 2010 with windows 7 version.And then after Microsoft releases a continuous updates at a regular interval as windows 8 (Amber Black) and now the latest release is windows phone 8.1 which was delivered in the final form on 14th April 2014. and it is available to update to all the devices previously running windows phone 8 version.

Following are the more basic details about Windows phone 8:-

  • Developer :-Microsoft Corporation
  • operating System written mainly in  c and c++ so which makes the OS to work more faster and to take less memory.
  • platforms :-Qualcomm Snapdragon base on ARMv7 .
  • Kernal Type :- Monolithic        

1. Greater Start Screen personalisation:-

new_start_screen_personalisation_microsoft.jpgMicrosoft has come up with the new option in windows phone 8.1 and  has added 'Start background' feature that allows users to add an image to the tiles on the Start screen of the device.

The feature will add an image of the user's choice to multiple tiles on the Start screen. Earlier, the Live Tiles on the Start screen on Windows Phone 8 were limited to solid colours.

2. Cortana: Finally arrives to take on Apple's Siri and Google's Google Now

One of the highlight features of Windows Phone 8.1 is Cortana, which is Microsoft's voice-based virtual assistant. The Redmond giant's Cortana is based on a popular AI character in Microsoft's blockbuster video game franchise, Halo.
Cortana is powered by Bing and is similar to Apple's Siri or Google Now, completely replacing the search feature in WP8.1. 
Cortana can be launched by pressing the Live Tile placed on the Start screen or by pressing the Search button on the Windows Phone device. Belfiore said that Cortana can interact verbally or by typing, and stressed its ability to understand natural language voice commands. It can also interact with third party apps, though developers will have to build Cortana-compatibility into their apps.

3. Action Centre for notifications

windows_phone_8_1_action_centre.jpgMicrosoft has finally launched one of the most awaited features on Windows Phone platform,Similar to the android Phone of Google the Action Center. The Windows Phone 8.1 update brings the Action Centre to all Windows Phone-based devices which will show notifications for calls, messages, emails, apps and others. It will also offer quick settings access to Flight Mode, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and Rotation Lock options. Notably, the quick access options are customisable.
The Action Centre for Windows Phone 8.1 can be accessed by a simple drop down swipe gesture like seen in Android and iOS.

4. Word Flow Keyboard

Another big addition in the Windows Phone 8.1 has been the introduction of the Word Flow Keyboard, which is a Swype keyboard-like feature for Windows Phone users. The Word Flow Keyboard allows users to glide over the display and type words.
Microsoft claims that the Word Flow Keyboard is one of the 'most intuitive smartphone keyboards' and learns from users writing style. It Basically supports 16  different languages

5. Skype Integration

Microsoft has also upgraded the Skype integration in Windows Phone devices with its latest Windows Phone 8.1. Now, the new Skype app for Windows Phone 8.1 comes with dialler integration that allows a user to switch a regular call to a Skype video call with a click of a button. Further, Skype has also been designed to work with Cortana, as users can setup Skype calls via the new voice-based virtual assistant.

6. Upgraded imaging experience

Microsoft takes the Windows Phone photography experience to the next level with the revamped Camera Roll, which gives quick access to clicked images, image tweaking tools and sharing capabilities.
The Smart Shots, Cinemagraphs, and Refocus photos options are directly accessible now from Camera Roll. Microsoft has also added the burst mode features to its Windows Phone 8.1 for clicking continuous images.
Creative Studio has been also added to the Camera Roll, which can use five new filters. 

7. New Sense feature for Windows Phone users

Microsoft has introduced the new Sense apps that include Data Sense, Wi-Fi Sense and Storage Sense.
Data Sense gives a detailed track of data usage on a Windows Phone, which could be braked down according to time- a month, a week etc. Data Sense includes a 'high savings' mode that the company claims will compress the images browsed on the Web, so a user can search more without with less data usage.
Another Sense app is Wi-Fi Sense, which automatically connects to a nearby Wi-Fi hotspot (when detected) to conserve cellular data.
Notably, when Wi-Fi is turned off in Wi-Fi Sense; Cortana can automatically turn it on, when a favourite location with hotspot is available.
Storage Sense can help users manage content stored on the microSD card and inbuilt storage by moving apps, music, images and videos between inbuilt storage and microSD card.
In addition, Microsoft has also improved its Battery Sense feature, giving a breakdown of apps' battery consumption, and also includes an 'automatic mode' in the Battery Saver option that can help extend battery life.

8. Slew of new delights

Microsoft has also introduced the new Lock Screen, which now comes with multiple Lock Screen themes featuring different visuals and animations - APIs are also available for developers to create their own themes and widgets.
The Calendar app has received a redesign and now shows a week view, along with a weather widget which has been integrated into the Calendar app. It will show at the top.
Various apps such as Music, Video and Podcasts have also been improve .
The Internet Explorer 11 for Windows Phone 8.1 was also introduced. The new IE11 comes with new features such as InPrivate browsing, password caching, and a super-handy reading mode.
Read More
back to top